The Natural History Museum – Guimet or museum of natural history of Lyon , (Confluences museum). The Guimet Museum of Natural History was formed in xix th century by various collections grouping. Originally, it was established in the 1620s by two brothers, Gaspard de Liergues and Balthasar de Monconys. In 1772 sold to the municipality and officially became a city museum under the name of “Academic Museum of the Town Hall”.
موزه تاریخ طبیعی یا موزه تاریخ طبیعی لیون (یا موزه کانفلوانس): موزه تاریخ طبیعی گیمت در قرن ششم توسط مجموعههای مختلف تشکیل شد. در اصل، در دهه 1620 توسط دو برادر به نامهای گاسپارد د لیرگ و بالتاسار د مونکنیس تأسیس شد. در سال 1772 به شهرداری فروخته شد و به طور رسمی به موزه شهر با نام “موزه آکادمیک شهر” تبدیل شد.
Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden of Istanbul University
AHBG has a recognized position as the oldest and richest botanical garden in Turkey. This botanical garden established by late Prof. Alfred Heilbronn in 1934 and began to operate in 1935 under the name of İ.Ü. Botanik Bahçesi (I.U.Botanical Garden – Hortus Botanicus Istanbulensis).
There were 23 pools in the garden, 15 of them are in the greenhouses, 8 in a natural environment, and some of them are heated. There is also a rock garden of 430 m².
The AHBG contributes to the education of undergraduate students of Biology every year; interesting samples from the world of plants are presented to primary and secondary education students and to people who live in Istanbul and surroundings and also to foreign researchers and guests.
Botanical Collections of AHBG Based on resources, the garden covers an area of 15,000 m². In total, about 6000 plant specimens, both native and exotic, from different taxonomical categories including Ferns, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are exhibited in the garden. (Source: http://arbnet.org/morton-register/alfred-heilbronn-botanical-garden)
Flora of Turkey Turkey has a rich and interesting flora with approximately 9000 vascular plant species (10,765 taxa) from 165 families. 3000 plant species approximately are endemic for Turkey (around 35%). It has a wide diversity of habitats and climatic conditions resulting from geological, topographical and continental characteristics of Anatolia as a meeting place of three phytogeographical regions including Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean, and Irano-Turanian.
*The time I visited this garden, July 2021, the garden was closed because of some constructional or administrative reason, but I was very lucky to find a researcher by coincidence who kindly accepted to guide me discovering the garden and the herbarium.
*All photos photographed by smartphone: Samsung A32
The Jardin botanique de Bordeaux (0.5 hectares) is a municipal botanical garden located at Place Bardineau, Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, France. This historic garden has been recently supplemented by the Jardin botanique de la Bastide, located across the river. Although the garden’s origins extend back to 1629 AD, with the creation of Bordeaux’s first medicinal garden, today’s botanical garden dates to 1858. It currently contains more than 3000 plant species, both those indigenous to Aquitaine and exotic plants from North America, China and Japan.
The Jardin des Plantes of Paris is the main botanical garden in France. It is one of seven departments of the Muséum ntional d’histoire naturelle which is situated in the 5ème arrondissement, Paris, on the left bank of the river Seine and covers 28 hectares (280,000 m²). Founded in 1626, the garden was not planted by Guy de La Brosse, Louis XIII’s physician, until 1635 as a medicinal herb garden. It was originally known as the Jardin du Roi. In 1640 it opened to the public. The Comte de Buffon became the curator in 1739 and he expanded the gardens greatly, adding a maze, the Labyrinth, which remains today.
The Montpellier Botanical Garden (Jardin des plantes de Montpellier) is one of the oldest in Europe. It was created by order of Henri IV in 1593. At that time it only served as a model for designing all botanical gardens in France, including the one in Paris 40 years later.
The garden occupied more than one hectare, and some space for a plant collection. Over the years the garden area grew to include a systematics school, an arboratum, and a landscaped park. Now, it is one the properties of the University of Montpellier I, the garden is classified as a Historical Monument and Protected Site.
Today the garden contains about 2,680 plant species, including 500 native to the Mediterranean region. Of these roughly 2,000 species are grown outdoors, and 1,000 indoors.
Le Jardin des plantes de Montpellier est un jardin botanique universitaire qui fait partie intégrante du patrimoine de l’Université Montpellier 1. C’est le plus ancien jardin botanique de France. Ce jardin a une triple vocation : botanique, historique et universitaire.
Lors de sa fondation en 1593 par Pierre Richer de Belleval, le Jardin des plantes de Montpellier était destiné à la culture des « simples », mais le projet de Richer dépassa rapidement les seules plantes médicinales qui servaient à l’enseignement des futurs médecins et apothicaires pour devenir un véritable outil d’étude botanique, inédit à l’époque.
Mont-Saint-Michel or Saint Michael’s Mount is a tidal island and mainland commune in Normandy, France. The island lies approximately one kilometre off the country’s north-western coast, at the mouth of the Couesnon River near Avranches and is 7 hectares in area. The mainland part of the commune is 393 hectares in area so that the total surface of the commune is 400 hectares. As of 2019, the island had a population of 29. The island remained unconquered during the Hundred Years’ War; a small garrison fended off a full attack by the English in 1433. Louis XI recognised the reverse benefits of its natural defence and turned it into a prison. The abbey was used regularly as a prison in the past. Mont-Saint-Michel and its surrounding bay were inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979 for its unique aesthetic and importance as a medieval Christian site. It is visited by more than 3 million people each year. Over 60 buildings within the commune are protected in France as monuments historiques.
مون سنت میشل یا کوه سنت میشل یک جزیره و شهر کوچکی (روستا؟) در نرماندی فرانسه است. این جزیره تقریباً یک کیلومتر دورتر از ساحل شمال غربی کشور، در دهانه رودخانه کوسنون در نزدیکی Avranches قرار دارد و 7 هکتار وسعت دارد. مساحت بخش اصلی ده 393 هکتار است به طوری که مساحت کل ده 400 هکتار است. از سال 2019، این جزیره 29 نفر جمعیت داشته است. این جزیره در طول جنگ صد ساله تسخیر نشده باقی ماند. یک پادگان کوچک از حمله کامل انگلیسی ها در سال 1433 جلوگیری کرد. لویی یازدهم مزیت دفاع طبیعی آن را تشخیص داد و آن را به زندان تبدیل کرد. صومعه این جزیره در گذشته به طور مرتب به عنوان زندان مورد استفاده قرار می گرفت. کوه سنت میشل و خلیج اطراف آن در سال 1979 به دلیل زیبایی منحصر به فرد و اهمیت آن به عنوان یک مکان مسیحی قرون وسطایی در فهرست میراث جهانی یونسکو ثبت شد. سالانه بیش از 3 میلیون نفر از آن بازدید می کنند. بیش از 60 ساختمان در داخل این روستا به عنوان بناهای تاریخی محافظت می شوند.
A short trip to Mont Saint-Michel Le Mont Saint-Michel is an island commune in Normandy in France, located about one kilometre (0.6 miles) off the country’s northwestern coast, at the mouth of the Couesnon River near Avranches and is 100 hectares (247 acres) in size. As of 2009, the island has a population of 44. The island has held strategic fortifications since ancient times and since the 8th century AD has been the seat of the monasteryfrom which it draws its name. The structural composition of the town exemplifies the feudal society that constructed it: on top, God, the abbey and monastery; below, the great halls; then stores and housing; and at the bottom, outside the walls, houses for fishermen and farmers. The commune’s position — on an island just 600 metres from land — made it accessible at low tide to the many pilgrims to its abbey, but defensible as an incoming tide stranded, drove off, or drowned would-be assailants. The Mont remained unconquered during the Hundred Years’ War; a small garrison fended off a full attack by the English in 1433. The reverse benefits of its natural defence were not lost on Louis XI, who turned the Mont into a prison. Thereafter the abbey began to be used more regularly as a jail during the Ancien Régime. One of France’s most recognizable landmarks, visited by more than 3 million people each year, Mont Saint-Michel and its bay are on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Over 60 buildings within the commune are protected in France as monuments historiques. (Wikipedia)